How Immigration Laws Have Changed

This is the third of a three-part series on refugees and immigration by Manji Law.

The United States was built on immigration.

Generally, citizens have been proud of that history. However, anti-immigrant rhetoric has been on the rise, from popular politicians to online rumors and TV news channels. Even the U.S. Customs and Immigration Service changed its mission statement, deleting the line that described “America’s promise as a nation of immigrants.” In many ways, this reflects not merely rhetoric, but also reality.

The promise and hope embodied at the base of the Statue of Liberty – give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free – has long represented the ideal of America’s views of immigration. Changing immigration laws, however, continue to impact people now and are likely to continue doing so in the future.

Over the years, an idealized America presented itself as a welcoming, nurturing land for people from all around the world. Of course, migration to the United States has been marred by racially-prejudiced histories. These included laws that placed heavy or impossible burdens on East Asian and African immigrants whilst labelling many European immigrants as ‘white’ and, therefore, desirable. Jewish, Indian, and Southern European immigrants were excluded, even in the early 20th century.

Photograph courtesy of Luke Stackpoole for Unsplash

It is also worth noting that not all immigration was voluntary. Immigration also included the painful and brutal history of the transatlantic slave trade. Furthermore, while some people migrate for education or economic opportunity, many have been essentially forced to relocate as the changes imposed by economic globalization and climate change have severely affected their own countries. Even more have been forced to seek asylum due to war and oppression.

The Immigration Act of 1965 impacted migration to the United States in a positive way by legally stripping away many of the barriers non-Europeans had experienced when attempting to enter the United States. Now, one out of every five immigrants live in the United States, and their contributions have shaped the way Americans understand themselves, their culture, and their identity.

U.S. immigration law has long favored highly-skilled and educated workers, and many have come to the United States to advance their careers in skilled professions like technology and medicine. Despite benefits to a healthy, growing society and economy, immigration has become increasingly difficult for people around the world. In fact, an anti-immigration movement has been on the rise in Europe and the United States, even as widespread coverage of a ‘migration crises’ is on the rise.

Although the arrival of new immigrants has actually significantly decreased in Europe over the past two years, far-right political parties continue to encourage anti-immigrant sentiment. In some cases, they exploit real economic problems like a lack of well-paying jobs or a rise in housing costs. They highlight immigrants as a scapegoat for these issues, despite the limited effect of migrant populations.

Photograph courtesy of Anastasia Dulgier for Unsplash

Many of the same issues have arisen in recent U.S. anti-immigrant rhetoric, issues that raise uncomfortable similarities to the racist laws that excluded immigrants in the past. Economic anxieties about a changing economy and a loss of jobs are often redirected. Rather than questioning politicians or corporate leaders, the blame is directed at migrants.

The results of these anti-immigrant policies – including Trump’s travel ban – do not only affect those who want to migrate permanently to the United States. The travel ban (commonly referred to as the ‘Muslim ban’) excludes tourists and visitors from seven countries (five of them with Muslim majorities). This means that people from these countries are not allowed in the United States to study, work, perform, or visit their families. Thousands of Iranians have studied and worked in the U.S. before returning to their country, whilst thousands more regularly visit their families. Now, they face exclusion.

Immigrants are facing a tough political climate and changing policies that put even legal migrants and green-card holders at risk. It is more critical than ever for people migrating to the United States to avoid any potential conflict with the laws in place and work with an immigration lawyer in order to give themselves the highest level of protection.

Countries that are concerned about immigration have a responsibility to change their international policies to stop, rather than foster, war and environmental destruction. Many people do not wish to leave their homelands except to travel. The strengthening of welfare-state policies and a productive economy can reduce widespread fear about migration, as well as support for ever-tightening borders.

Author’s Bio

 

Jameel Manji is an immigration attorney in Atlanta, Georgia and founder of Manji Law, P.C. Manji Law was founded in 2016 with the goal of helping people navigate the complicated immigration system. As an immigration law firm, Manji Law helps clients with family immigration, removal defense (deportation), asylum/refugee waivers, business immigration, naturalization, and more.

 

 

If you are interested in reading the first two articles of Manji Law’s three-part series on refugees and immigration, please follow the links below…

  1. The Future of Immigration to the United States: Predictions from an Immigration Lawyer
  2. What Protections Exist for Refugees Worldwide?

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The Future of Immigration to the United States: Predictions from an Immigration Lawyer

This is the first of a three-part series on refugees and immigration by Manji Law.

The United States has long been a nation of immigrants. However, recent changes to immigration policies may signal a new trend for the country.

In the 1600s, Europeans traveled to North America. Soon after, they began importing African people as slaves. During the 1800s and 1900s, the United States experienced immigration from China, Japan, Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Poland. Although racial, religious, and cultural tensions accompanied these waves, the U.S. nevertheless attained its status as a melting pot where everyone could follow their dreams. In fact, in 2005, the mission statement for the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) specifically recognized this heritage by including the phrase “a nation of immigrants.”

However, under the administration of President Trump, the federal government has eliminated that sentiment.

In February 2018, USCIS removed the reference to an immigrant nation. Instead, its updated mission statement focused on protecting Americans, securing the homeland, and administering immigration laws. L. Francis Cissna, the agency’s director, defended the change and emphasized the focus on serving the American people. This shift in language arose directly from the Trump Administration’s restrictive views on immigration.

Donald Trump’s presidential campaign delivered a strong anti-immigrant message. Since taking office, his policies (which focused primarily on Latin America and Muslim countries) increased procedural barriers for immigrants, people seeking asylum, and international travelers. In addition, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the terms of his travel ban, which denies visas to people from Libya, Iran, Somalia, Syria, Yemen, North Korea, and Venezuela.

Photograph by Marian Carrasqeuro for The New York Times

Trump’s next major shift, in April 2018, created the now infamous family separation policy at the Mexican border. This policy directed border agents to detain or deport all adult immigrants crossing the border, and seize any children, including infants. Within months, nearly 3,000 children had been separated from their caregivers. An intense public outcry forced the president to rescind the policy, but hundreds remain in detention.

These aggressive policies stem from Trump’s desire to build a Mexican border wall, which he claims will protect Americans from drugs and violence. Starting in 2015, Trump made this a primary focus of his presidential campaign. His ongoing verbal attacks depicting immigrants as criminals have translated to concrete changes.

Between 2016 and 2017, the drop in refugee admissions from 84,995 people to 53,716 illustrates the immediate results of his policies. In 2018, the federal government capped annual refugee admissions at 45,000, which is the lowest since the program began in 1980. As for foreign workers, a bill in the U.S. Senate would alter eligibility criteria and apply a points system to evaluate candidates for employment-based green cards. Furthermore, Trump has stated his desire to end the diversity visa program. Since 1995, it has provided a chance for over one million people to enter the country. The current administration has also placed the Temporary Protected Status (TPS) program on the chopping block. TPS allowed over 320,000 people from 10 countries to live in the United States to escape wars or natural disasters occuring in their homelands. The majority came from El Salvador, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Sudan. These individuals can expect to lose their residency and work privileges in 2018 and 2019.

Due to the sudden changes, many lives have been thrown into turmoil, as the harsh rhetoric has stirred up political passions among Americans on both sides of the debate. Ultimately, much of the hostility lacks a basis in facts, and immigration supporters decry this open hostility. They have gone so far as to demand the disbandment of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency. Current legal actions by the American Civil Liberties Union strive to uphold domestic and international laws for vulnerable people.

Photograph by Joe Raedle for Getty Images (as seen on Vox.com)

With the American public divided on the issues, the future is uncertain. There are a few predictions that seem unavoidable, at least in the immediate future. As long as President Trump is in office, immigration from local neighbors like Mexico will continue to be more difficult and contentious. Additionally, there could be further restrictions on travel from Muslim-majority countries with an enhanced ‘travel ban.’ If the administration’s actions hold true, we can almost certainly guarantee that the reduction of asylum and political refugee grantees will continue. There are even whispers that the Trump Administration will pursue further action on legal immigrants.

These actions will likely have a negative impact on the world’s view of what was traditionally considered an inviting country, one willing to welcome the tired, poor, and huddled masses “yearning to breathe free.” In fact, as the U.S. under the Trump administration continues to isolate itself, the rest of the world may acquiesce. The U.S. may find it increasingly difficult to find other nations willing to work with.

Long-term predictions are less certain, and are dependant on future administrations. Harsh policies might become entrenched and even expanded. Perhaps, however, immigration law will revert to its former, more accepting positions. Only time will tell.

Author’s Bio

 

Jameel Manji is an immigration attorney in Atlanta, Georgia and founder of Manji Law, P.C. Manji Law was founded in 2016 with the goal of helping people navigate the complicated immigration system. As an immigration law firm, Manji Law helps clients with family immigration, removal defense (deportation), asylum/refugee waivers, business immigration, naturalization, and more.

 

 

If you’re interested in learning more about refugees, I invite you to view Invisible Victimisation: The Gendered Politics of the Refugee Crisis and Thoughts on the Guardian’s “Tourists Go Home, Refugees Welcome”. The second and third parts of Manji Law’s refugee and immigration series will be published soon.

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Why Disneyland Is The Happiest Place On Earth… For Adults

To quote Buzzfeed, “… whenever you tell a person you’ve never been to Disneyland, they go through at least seven different stages of stunning disbelief before telling you that you have to — no, listen: YOU HAVE TO. Get in a car and drive to Disneyland, because every second you waste not being at Disneyland is apparently crushing your soul into tiny bits of magic-less oblivion.”

As someone who has visited the happiest place on earth both as an eight year old and as an eighteen year old, I feel that I am somewhat knowledgeable in terms of experiencing the amusement park from two very different walks of life. As an eight year old, my Disneyland experience consisted of stuffing my face with candy floss, queuing for an hour for Space Mountain, wanting to vomit said candy floss as I was hurtling through the nauseating galaxy of said Space Mountain – and repeat. It was only as an eighteen year old that I realised Disneyland is more than just a fantastical sugar rush for kids.

The Architecture

I’m a bit of a sucker for design, and — much to the delight of my friends — insist on stopping every time we pass a building so that I can take a picture. As cheesy as it sounds, ‘reading’ the Disneyland surroundings is an adventure in itself; you can learn as much from the environment as you can from the experience. One of my favourite aspects of the Disneyland architecture is that of the Main Street; here, you’ll find homage to Second Empire Victorian with a nod to Hollywood art deco.

(If this bores you, you may find yourself rethinking your appreciation for architecture when you’re waiting in line with nothing to entertain yourself except for the buildings around you.)

The Escapism

Escapism is defined as “an inclination to retreat from unpleasant realities through diversion or fantasy”. As human beings, we all experiencing adversity and the pressing weight of society at various points in our lives. In order to secure a satisfactory level of well-being, we all need a chance to release and ‘let down our hair’, so to speak. If Disneyland can’t do that for you, then I don’t know what can.

Stepping through the front gates is the phenomenological equivalent of stepping through a portal and into a magical and exquisite world. Everything is insurmountably better; Disneyland even seems to defy the laws of physics. Even as a temporary relief, the amusement park is an important source of happiness for those who seek it. If you approach the experience as an opportunity to escape reality, then you can be sure you’ll be getting bang for your buck.

The Food

Downtown Disney is the cuisine hub of Disneyland. The best time to visit it is at night when you can enjoy a refreshing beer beneath the beautiful lights of the boulevards. However, that is not to say that Disneyland itself has nothing mouth-watering on offer. In fact, I have compiled a short list that you should make your mission to try the next time you hear your stomach grumbling.

BBQ Tofu from River Belle Terrace (spot the vegetarian)

Hand-Dipped Ice Cream Bars at Clarabelle’s Hand Scooped Ice Cream

Peanut Butter Sandwich from Pooh Corner

Churros from… anywhere, really!

The Rides

Come on, you can’t discuss an amusement park and miss out the rides. Plus, I’m a firm believer that you are never too old for a rollercoaster, and that anyone who claims otherwise needs a good old dose of faith, trust and pixie dust to cheer them up. Although you’ll find more adrenalised rides at California Adventure right next door, one that ranks right up there for me is Space Mountain. Think a fast-paced rollercoaster. In the dark. Surrounded by a nebula of exploding stars. It’s a Trekkie’s wet dream.

If you are more disposed towards taking it slow, I recommend you check out the highly acclaimed Pirates of the Caribbean, an indoor “swashbuckling voyage” where your boat will drift past intricately crafted gun and sword fights. On that note, don’t forget to make a reservation at the Blue Bayou. This restaurant is located within the Pirates of the Caribbean complex and specialises in Cajun and Creole cuisine.

What I’m trying to say is that if you are planning a trip to Los Angeles, don’t completely write off Disneyland as catering solely to children. If you approach it from with right attitude, there is as much joy to be experienced as an adult as when you were a kid. From the architecture to the escapism and from the food to the rides, the happiest place on earth no longer has an expiration date.

Are you an adult who has dared to put on the mouse ears and venture into Walt Disney’s fantasia? What was your experience like?

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